Thoughts for 2003

(Back to page 1 of this theory)


The problem is that we don't yet see Time for what it really is, a fourth dimension of space, just like length, width, and depth. We make a big deal of it because it seems to be the only dimension that "moves," but what my theory proposes is that all the dimensions are "moving" because they are expanding outwards. So Einstein was always careful to say "Space/Time," when just the one word "Space" should suffice. If space is curved by the attraction of mass, then Time, as one of its dimensions, is also curved. And if my theory is valid, the expansion of space is also affected by the attraction of mass.


Question: Does our expansion through the dimension of time have a physical consequence of any type? Thought experiment: I'm looking at a solid gold bowling ball. OK, you can look at an ordinary one if you want, but this is my thought experiment and it doesn't cost anything to make the bowling ball solid gold. Following my theory that the ball is expanding outwards in all directions, which is the dimension of time, we have all this mass "moving" in a manner of speaking. Is anything left behind? The ball exists now. Now becomes "then" when the ball expands even the tiniest amount into the future. But is any part of the ball - mass or energy- left behind in the ball's "wake?" If so, how would we measure it or detect it? The "direction" of that past moment is not only "inward" but in some other x,y, or z coordinate as well, taking into account the rotation of the earth, the orbit around the sun, and orbit of the solar system around the center of the galaxy, etc. Where/when would we look? What kind of phenomenon can we predict that we should be searching for? Lots of questions right now, with no answers in sight.


It's been quite a while since I updated this site. In the meantime, I have been working on a couple of very important parts of the theory and gotten stuck in a quagmire of antiquated math. Some time last February, I decided that I needed a new way to look at Einstein's equation, as I was attempting to modify it. I was still not happy with simply squaring C and multiplying it by an unknown expansion factor (a). I decided that I would back up a bit and reduce the equation to E = mC. Then I invented a new symbol to represent space-time. I used the ankh, with the little hole at the top representing "space" and the T beneath it representing Time. OK, so now I have a new symbol that will represent space-time and this releases me from thinking about C squared. The bad part of this symbol is that it is not represented anywhere on a computer keyboard on in the character map. † is about as close as I can come to it. Now my simplified equation looks like this: E = mC†

So what is † and how is it different from C? For one thing, it is a constantly incrementing number. It is always increasing by one quintillionth of a second, assuming that a quintillionth of a second is the smallest unit of Time as is currently believed. This will not make mathematicians happy because they can't pin down the actual number for † at any given moment. I can say C = 186,000 miles per second, but I can't say the same about † so it gets away from the C squared simplicity of Einstein's "out" and it gets rid of the (a) that I added earlier to account for the expansion of space-time.

On the other hand, if you count all the quintillionth of a second's from the big bang until now, you will see that it is a really, really big number and gets bigger every quintillionth of a second. † = † + 1 quintillionth of a second.

Reverse the clock to the moment of the Big Bang, when E was actually equal to m and nothing more. It was Time that changed all that. The birth of the universe was simultaneously the birth of space-time. If we think of Energy as being the motion of Mass in the three dimensions of space, then expand space outward by the dimension of Time, then that first quintillionth of a second is what started it all flowing.


I have been recently working on establishing a connection between my revised version of Einstein's equation with other physics equations. I am beginning to think that Einstein's equation is actually the theory of everything. Take Ohm's law, for instance. V = IR, where V = electrical voltage, I = amperes of current or electrical pressure, and R = resistance. One would think this has little to do with E = mc2, much less with my version of E = mC†. But everything exists in space/time and if, as I theorize, all of space/time is expanding in the direction of time(the future), then everything is affected by that fact, including Ohm's law.

I was at the pizza parlor doodling on a napkin and I happened to line up the two equations, looking for the connection:

V = IR

E = mC†

I began to equate voltage with energy, resistance with mass, and that left current to be compared to expanding space/time. I rearranged Ohm's law to make the two equations line up better:

V = RI

E = mC†

I had a beautiful thought-picture of mass resisting the conversion into energy by means of its gravitational (electro-magnetic) attraction of atoms, while space time provides the pressure (current).


Is it possible that the red shift observation of distant galaxies, which was Hubble's way of proving that all the galaxies are moving away from one another at an accelerated rate, is instead an indicator of time differences between our galaxies?

If we can accept the idea that time is relative to our local surroundings, then one is looking at a time differential when observing objects not within our own loacl area. Just what is local? Probably the planet earth is truly local, with everything else away from the earth not local, but not measurable either, until one gets to another galaxy. It may be that the expansion of space/time is responsible for the red shift effect, rather than any movement of the galaxy away from us (or maybe a combination of both). The clue would be to carefully observe and measure different objects within a distant galaxy. If all objects have the exact same red shift, then my theory is probably incorrect and a vast movement of the entire galaxy is probably the cause for an even red shift across the entire galaxy. But if a time differential is the cause of the red shift, then there would be noticable variations in the red shift, and there might even be some blue shifting going on at the center of the galaxy where my theory predicts the main black hole is trying very hard to stay still in the expansion of space/time. It would hardly make sense to conclude that the black hole is moving towards us while the rest of its galaxy is moving away from us. There seems to be a conclusion by Einstein that massive gravity could cause a red shift, but if one agrees with my explanation that space/time expansion is the cause of the force we call gravity, then space/time expansion would also be the cause of any red shifting attributed to it.


Each planet has its own expansion rate, therefore, its own time. Earth time is different from Jupiter time, yet not noticably so to any inhabitants of this Solar System which also has its own time. The Milky Way Galaxy has its own time, as does each distant galaxy we see. The expansion rate of space/time in the vacuum between galaxies is much faster than the expansion rate of space time within the confines of the "gravity well" of the galaxy, or of each component of a galaxy like solar systems, planets and moons.

It is this time differential that is causing the galaxies to expand away from every other massive gravity well.

Let us say that the expansion rate of space/time in the vacuum of deep space is tied to the speed of light in a vacuum, our only known indicator of the rate of space/time expansion. Each atto second, every point of space/time in that vacuum expands "outward" for a distance of one Planck constant. However, closer in towards earth, that expansion rate might be decreased to, for example (not having any way to make measurements) one nano second for a distance of one Planck constant. Keep in mind that the size of a Plank constant is continually expanding as well, but that it remains proportional to the time rate and so seems to be a constant to those of us expanding along with it.

Each object within a more massive object's "gravity well" shares the space/time expansion rate of the more massive object. So we share the earth's time rate while on earth, and share the Solar System/Milky Way Galazy's time rate when traveling between planets, then share the planet (for example) Mar's time rate while on that planet, and so on. All of this difference is meaningless to our everyday lives, but might become very important when traveling between stars, or communicating with intelligent beings from other star systems or galaxies.

On to 2004 notes:

Back to The Beginning

Contact Jim Gerrish at: